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Charaka Shareera Sthana 1st Chapter Katithaapurushiyam Shareeram

1st chapter of Charaka Shareera sthana offers on understanding of structure of the Physique. The chapter title is Katidha purushiyam Shareeram.

Empirical Soul

We will now discover the chapter coping with the a number of of the “Empirical Soul” and so on, conducive to the understanding of the structure of the physique. Thus stated Lord Atreya [1-2]
Learn – Prakriti – Dosha Physique Kind Options As Per Grasp Charaka

Queries of Agnivesha

What are the divisions of the ‘Empirical Soul’ in response to the division of Dhatus (components)?
Why is the “Empirical Soul’ thought of to be the reason for the physique?
What’s origin of “Empirical Soul’’?
Is he smart (perceivable) or ignorant (non-perceivable)? Is he everlasting or ephemeral?
What’s structure? What are deformities / derivatives? What are ten signs (traits) of the soul?

Those that have experience in religious science describe the “Empirical Soul” as

  • devoid of motion
  • impartial
  • having self management
  • completely free
  • all pervasive
  • knower of the physique and 
  • a witness / spectator

When is the “Empirical Soul” devoid of motion; how does motion emanate from him?
When he’s impartial why does he take origin from (among the many) undesired wombs / undesirable species?
Learn – Atma – The Soul: Sorts, Life Cycle

If the soul is beneath self management (has gained management over all his senses) why is he forcibly enveloped by (influenced by) the feelings? (It means to inform ‘If he’s completely free, how is He overpowered with depressing beliefs?’)
If he’s all over the place, is He not conscious of all miseries of everybody?
If He’s omnipresent, how does He not visualize issues interrupted by (past) the hills and partitions?
Which comes first- the physique or the knower of the physique (soul)? There’s all the time confusion about this.
Learn – Significance Of Soul In Notion Of Data: Atma Jnana

Kshetra (physique) is the one which must be identified. If there is no such thing as a knower then it’s no use telling ‘kshetrajna (the one who resides within the kshetra i.e. soul)’. It is because if there’s kshetra solely then there will likely be a knower of kshetra. If we first settle for the existence of kshetra, we would have to just accept that kshetrajna (soul) is anitya (impermanent, transient).
If there doesn’t exist one other doer to do the actions aside from atma (soul) then to what and whom is the soul ‘the witness / observer’ of (then whom does the soul observe or kind a witness to)? It means to inform that when somebody does the actions, the opposite one who observes these actions can be thought of as witness or observer. However we name the soul as observer / witness of the actions. If there is no such thing as a different doer of motion aside from the soul, then whom does the soul observe?

The soul is thought to be ‘devoid of deformities’, then how does this soul expertise ‘happiness and grief’?
Out of the three kinds of ache / miseries of a affected person, i.e. teh previous one, the current one and the longer term one, which one ought to the doctor deal with?

The longer term pains / miseries aren’t in existence (not but been manifested) due to this fact there is no such thing as a query of treating them.
The previous pains / miseries don’t exist and won’t recur.
The pains / miseries of the current time (which exist proper now) are momentary and don’t behave in a set approach and so within the absence of continuity, it isn’t amenable to any therapy.

So the above talked about doubt all the time exists i.e. ‘which pains / miseries ought to the doctor deal with?’
Learn – Adhyatmika Gunas – Qualities Associated To Soul As Per Ayurveda

What are the causative elements of miseries (illnesses)?
What are websites of their manifestation?
The place do all these miseries sub- merge after their remedy
What are the indicators which assist in the popularity of the “Empirical Soul” which is omnipresent, all –renouncing, devoid of all contacts, just one and tranquil?
Grasp Punarvasu, probably the most realized one and smart among the many different lot after listening to patiently all of the questions requested by Agnivesha gave appropriate replies to all of the queries.

Totally different ideas about Purusha

Purusha contains six Dhatus (components), i.e.

  • 5 Maha bhutas (of their refined kind) i.e. ether, wind, fireplace, water and earthand
  • soul / consciousness

Even the ingredient of consciousness alone constitutes Purusha. [16]

One other idea of Purusha comprising twenty-four elements
Purusha is once more stated to be made up of 24 dhatus / tattvas (entities). They’re –
Manas – thoughts – 1
Indriyas – sense organs and organs of motion (motor organs) collectively – 10 in quantity. They’re –

  1. 5 jnanendriyas i.e. sense organs – eyes, ears, nostril, tongue and pores and skin
  2. 5 karmendriyas i.e. motor organs – i.e. organs of speech, palms, legs (ft), anus and penis

Indriyartha – objects of sense organs – 5 in quantity i.e. imaginative and prescient / sight, sound, scent, style and contact
Prakriti – 8 in quantity –

Proof of Existence of Thoughts and its attributes

The 2 predominant traits of the thoughts are –

  • Gaining the information of one thing (understanding one thing)
  • Not gaining the information of one thing (not understanding one thing)

These two are reverse traits however each belong to the thoughts. That is the rationale why one understands one thing at a given level of time and generally he doesn’t perceive one thing else. This proves the existence of the thoughts as a separate sense organ. One doesn’t get the information of something when the soul, sense organs and sense objects are related. It is because the thoughts is absent within the affiliation. So when there is no such thing as a contact of the thoughts with the soul, sense organs and sense objects one don’t perceive issues. Alternatively one can perceive something when the thoughts will get related to the soul, sense organs and sense objects.

Under talked about are the qualities of the thoughts –

Objects of Thoughts

Under talked about are the topics of the thoughts –

  • To suppose – what to do and what not and specializing in these issues which want thought course of
  • To research / consideration – instance, ‘I might be benefitted if I do that, I might be at loss if I do that. and so on
  • To guess / creativeness / speculation – instance, to suppose ‘this is able to be the top results of any motion taking’
  • To meditate – upon no matter must be meditated upon / giving consideration or pondering upon
  • Dedication / willful determination – instance, taking a choice after correctly analyzing each fragment of the motion when it comes to qualities and faults and figuring out ‘since that is helpful it shall be thought of’
  • Something which will be identified or understood by the thoughts (with out the assistance of the sense organs) are thought of as topic issues of the thoughts.

Capabilities of the thoughts

  • Controlling the sense organs
  • Controlling self / self restraint
  • Imagining / making speculation and
  • Evaluation / consideration

Past that thrives the area of mind. [20-21]
Learn – 16 Components To Watch For A Wholesome Thoughts And Physique

Strategy of notion

When the thoughts will get related to the sense organs, the sense organs would understand their respective sense objects. The thoughts later would analyze the objects and determine and confirm whether or not they’re advantageous (ought to be accepted) or disadvantageous (ought to be rejected).

The mind which determines (the precise properties of the thing impel a (sane) particular person to talk or act intelligently. [22-23]

Composition of sense-organs

The 5 sense schools are made up of all of the 5 Mahabhutas however among the many 5 components of nature just one ingredient will likely be predominant in every sense organ. Fireplace ingredient is predominant within the eye, water ingredient within the tongue, earth ingredient in nostril, ether in ears and wind ingredient within the pores and skin.  They’re inferred from their 5 respective actions which function brokers for the manifestation of the mind. [24]
Learn – Earth Factor – Qualities, Capabilities, Ailments, Therapy

Motor- organs and their capabilities

Motor organs are 5 in quantity i.e. palms, ft, anus, phallus and the organ of speech (tongue). Ft are helpful in locomotion, anus and phallus for voiding and palms for assortment and holding. The tongue represents the organ of speech. Speech is of two sorts, viz, true and false. The previous (true speech) will be in comparison with gentle which illuminates the worldly life and the life after demise and the latter (false speech) to darkness which creates confusion. [25-26]

Attributes of 5 Mahabhutas

The 5 Mahabutas are Akasha (ether), vayu (wind), Agni (fireplace), Jala (water) and Prthvi (earth). Their attributes are sound, contact, imaginative and prescient, style and scent respectively. [27]

 Mahabhutas and their attributes

Of the 5 Mahabutas talked about above, the primary one (i.e Akasha) has just one attribute. The variety of attributes within the succeeding Mahabutas goes on rising successively. The attributes of the previous ones are added to the succeeding ones respectively. [28]

Traits of Mahabhutas

Sl No Mahabhuta (Identify of the ingredient of nature) Attribute characteristic That means
1 Prithvi – Earth Kharatva Roughness
2 Jala – Water Dravatva Liquidity
3 Vayu – Wind / Air Chalatva Mobility
4 Tejas – Fireplace Ushnatva Warmth
5 Akasha – Ether Apratighata Not being obstructed

All these traits are perceived by the tactile sense organ / sense organ of contact (pores and skin). Identical to the tactile sense organ i.e. pores and skin perceives contact sensation, it additionally perceives ‘absence of contact’. [29-30]
The qualities of the refined and minute bhutas (sound, contact, sight and so on sensory objects / perceptions) residing within the physique can even be recognized and referred to as the qualities of the mahabhutas (gross components). [31- 1]
 The sound and so on qualities that are perceived by the sense organs and are additionally the topics of the sense organs are referred to as as ‘arthas’ i.e. sense objects / objects perceivable by the sense organs. [31?]
Learn – Qualities Of 5 Primary Parts (Vishishta Gunas) – Classification, Makes use of

Perceptive School

The knowledge or mind is related to the sense organs for notion of sensory objects and in addition to know them. The mind will get the title of the sense organ with which it’s related on the time of notion of that individual sense object.

Chakshusha Buddhi – the mind related to the attention – helps in notion of visible objects
Shravana Buddhi – the mind related to the ear, – helps in notion of sound
Spaarshana Buddhi – the mind related to the pores and skin – helps in notion of contact
Raasana Buddhi – the mind related to the tongue – helps in notion of style
Ghrana Buddhi – the mind related to nostril – helps in notion of scent
Manasa Buddhi – the mind related to thoughts – helps in notion of the information coming by means of numerous senses touching with the thoughts – chargeable for psychological perceptions like anxiousness, sorrow and so on

Why several types of the above-mentioned intellects exist?
Perceptual schools / intellects are of a number of sorts. It is because the actions are of various sorts and the objects of sense organs are additionally of many sorts. The intellects is dependent upon these elements i.e. numerous sorts of actions and sense objects. All some of these mind are manifested attributable to its affiliation with soul, sense organs, and thoughts and sense objects. This implies to inform that any kind of data is obtained solely when all these schools are related in an in depth knitted loop.

Examples for ‘manifestation of mind in numerous types’

The sound of click on is produced by the friction between finger and thumb, identical to the clap is produced when the palms (palms) collide with one another, and identical to the tunes are produced from the affiliation of guitar, its string and the nails (of the fingers). All these sounds are completely completely different from one another. Identical to this as a result of several types of combos of the soul, thoughts, sense organs and the objects of sense organs – completely different sorts of mind are produced / manifested. Identical to the sounds are fashioned as a result of combos of what provides orgin to them, the mind additionally types as a result of mixture and affiliation of soul, thoughts, sense organs and sense objects. If these aren’t related the mind just isn’t manifested.  [32-34]
Learn – Manasika Doshas – Satva, Rajas, Tamas As Per Ayurveda

Purusha as co-ordinator

Rasi Purusha (Particular person fashioned by collective amalgamation of 24 components) – We must always think about the soul to be the one who has adorned the mixture of (related to the mixture of) mind, senses (sense organs), thoughts and teh objects of the sense organs. Subsequently Avyakta (soul) is the co-ordinator par-excellence of perceptual college, sense organs, thoughts and the objects of sense. The mixture of the above talked about (Verses 17-35) twenty 4 components is named Purusha. Being related to 24 components, the soul is named as chaturvimshati purusha or rashi purusha. [35]

Contact of Purusha due to Gunas

The contact of Purusha with 24 components continues so long as he’s influenced by Rajas and Tamas. The second he eliminates Rajas and Tamas he’s free of contacts by advantage of the dominance of Sattva. [36]

Data of Purusha

It’s on this mixture of 24 components which is named Purusha, motion, fruit of motion, information, ignorance, happiness, distress, life, demise and possession are established. One, who dually is aware of this, is aware of the life, demise, continuity of the physique i.e. the sequence of the cycle of beginning and demise with rebirth adopted by demise, therapy (Bodily and religious) of illnesses manifested within the present life time and in addition the strategies to realize freedom from the vicious cycle of life and demise and attain salvation and all different knowable objects. [37-38]
Learn – Purusha: Definition, Sorts, Attribute Options

Purusha as a causative issue

The arguments in help of existence of the soul – If the doer, the one who experiences and the one who is aware of every thing i.e. Purusha weren’t there, expertise / information and ignorance or gentle and darkness, reality or falsehood, the Vedas, good or unhealthy motion, couldn’t exist. If the existence of purusha just isn’t believed then the abode of the soul i.e. this physique too wouldn’t have existed. There would even be no happiness, distress, motion / the soul leaving the physique (salvation), immobility / rebirth, speech, information, scriptures, beginning, demise, bondage or salvation. So Purusha is recognised as a trigger (of creation) by these properly versed within the concept of causality.

If Purusha just isn’t recognised as a trigger, the above can be left and not using a trigger. There can be no consciousness, nor there any utility of theirs. [39-42]
Learn – Karma, Saguna, Ativahika Purusha – Definition, Composition

Baseless talks

This pot has been made by the mixture of mud, stick and wheel with out the involvement of the potter.
This home has been constructed by the mixture of mud, straw, beams, bamboo and sticks with out the involvement of an engineer.
Solely an individual who can inform these items would inform that the physique has been created by the mixture of 23 components with out the involvement and affiliation of the soul. It’s only an ignorant particular person devoid of rational outlook and scriptural information who could make such statements. [43-44]

Causality of Purusha

All of the sources of data together with scriptural which function instrument for information of assorted sorts set up the causality of Purusha. [45]
Learn – Affect Of Ayurveda in Darshanas: Evaluation, Clarification

Nastika- opinions contradicting the eternity of the Soul

There aren’t any everlasting entities as such. No object which exists is everlasting. They’re fashioned new and afresh after the beforehand present objects which seem just like them have been destroyed. This implies to inform that they’re produced afresh every time. They look like the identical objects due to similarity of kind and kind between them. It’s the folks and faculties of thought who imagine in these ideas who inform that the residing beings are devoid of soul. It’s the residing beings and never the soul as such is doers and enjoyers of motion. This view is held by some faculties of thought (Buddhists and so on). [46-47]

Defects within the above stated concept
In line with them (i.e the pronouncers of the above concept, viz. Buddhists who don’t imagine within the existence of a everlasting entity as Soul) the outcomes of motion carried out by one can be loved by another comparable (momentary entities) [48]

Causality of Purusha emphasised

The doer of motion, for instance a sculptor / engineer would possibly use completely different gear’s to perform his motion, however the doer is similar. He’s an environment friendly reason behind all actions by the advantage of his possession and command of the varied devices. Identical to this, the soul is just one, he performs many actions by means of completely different devices i.e. organs of the physique. So the doer is just one however he can accomplish numerous actions and change into the reason for them when he’s achieved with many devices of actions and has command over them. [49]

Extra Proofs for causality of Purusha

Bodily components get destroyed at a charge quicker than the short while; these destroyed don’t come again to their unique kind once more and the outcomes of the deeds (like Yajna) of 1 particular person aren’t loved by one other particular person. The realized ones are due to this fact of the view that there’s a everlasting entity referred to as Purusha who’s causative issue for the motion entity referred to as enjoyment of its fruits. [50-51]

Proof of the existence of soul

In residing beings, an element aside from the physique (i.e the soul) is chargeable for ego, the fruits of motion within the type of pleasure or ache, engagement in motion, transmigration i.e. the soul transferring from one physique to the opposite and reminiscence of the person. [52]

Paramatman and Rashi Purusha

Because the supreme Soul doesn’t have any starting, so there’s nothing which can provide beginning to the soul (no beginning as such will be ascribed to him). After all the empirical Soul (Purusha) who represents the mixture of 24 components is born out of trance, need, hatred / enviousness and motion. [53]
Learn – Paramatma – The Higher Soul: Distinction Between Jivatma And Ishwara

Strategy of notion

The empirical Soul is endowed with the ability of notion and has information of every thing. It perceives issues when it will get related to the sense organs (sense schools, thoughts and mind). If these devices of notion are both absent (not in affiliation with the Empirical Soul) or impeded, then there will likely be no notion. One can’t get the actual mirrored image of a picture from a mirror which is roofed with filth or from water which is muddy. Related is the case when the thoughts and so on. will get stricken. [54-55]

Co-ordination of assorted elements for notion

The devices of data are thoughts, mind, sense organs and organs of motion. Their affiliation with the Doer (Empirical Soul) leads to motion, sensations like pleasure and ache and information / understanding.  The empirical Soul alone (within the absence of devices of data) does neither provoke motion nor benefit from the fruit of motion. Mixture of all these elements is chargeable for the manifestation of all actions. If the affiliation between the soul and the opposite components doesn’t happen no actions happen. [56-57]
Learn – How Data Is Gained By means of Sense Organs?

Empirical Soul and Manifestations

The empirical Soul not alone however accompanied with devices of data is chargeable for the manifestation of issues that exist. Issues don’t manifest with out their causal elements. Then we get a query ‘do void / non-existence of issues’ too have causes? The reply isn’t any. The method of decay then again being too fast in succession doesn’t want any trigger as such. [58]

Absolute Soul and Empirical Soul

Absolute Soul doesn’t have a starting (origin) and due to this fact is everlasting. The Empirical Soul (i.e the mixture of 24 components) being brought on by one thing (i.e. causes like ignorance, need, hatred, motion, righteousness and non-righteousness and so on) just isn’t so i.e it has a starting and is ephemeral.
All that exist with out trigger is everlasting. This implies to inform that something which will be identified in on a regular basis strains (previous, current and future) and would not have any causes which produce them is everlasting. Something produced from a trigger is ephemeral i.e. something which exists and which is produced by different causes is emphemeral. [59]

Absolutely the Soul can’t be perceived by something, for eternity just isn’t brought on by something. So absolutely the Soul is unmanifested and imperceptible. The manifested creation is after all in any other case i.e. these issues that are identified by means of their manifestation i.e. the purusha made up of 24 components is emphereal, manifested and perceived.
Absolutely the Soul is unmanifested, knower of creation, everlasting, common and indestructible. The manifested creation (Empirical Soul) is after all in any other case. One other approach of distinguishing manifested issues from the unmanifested one is that the previous will be perceived by sense schools. The latter is transcendental in nature and is imperceptible; it will possibly solely be inferred (relatively than obtained) i.e. is past the notion of senses. [60-62]
Learn – Relation Between Doshas, Sense Organs And Notion

Twenty- 4 Parts

Eight Prakritis – The 5 refined components (Sabdanmatra, Sparsatanmatra, Rupatanmatra, Rasatanmatra and Gandhatanmatra), Buddhi (mind), Avyakta (Prakrti or nature) and Ahamkara (ego) are the eight sources of creation.
Sixteen Vikritis – Transformations (vikara) are sixteen in quantity. They’re – 5 sense schools, 5 motor schools, thoughts and 5 mahabhutas i.e. components of nature. [63-64]
Learn – Prakriti – Ayurveda Physique Sorts, Significance In Therapy And Cures

Ksetra and Ksetrajna

All these components taken collectively, besides the unmanifested one (avyakta) is named Ksetra i.e corpus. The unmanifested one is named Ksetrajna (knower of the corpus). [65]

Strategy of creation

The mind (buddhi) originates from Avyakta (unmanifested, soul). Ego (Ahamkara) will get manifested from mind (buddhi). From Ego the refined types of 5 Mahabhutas i.e. tanmatras get manifested i.e. akasha and so on. Later the vikaras i.e. 16 transformations are fashioned so as. The empirical Soul thus manifested in its entirety is thought to be born. [66-67]
Learn – Affect Of Ayurveda in Darshanas: Evaluation, Clarification

Strategy of dissolution

In the course of the time of destruction of the age, the Purusha (soul) once more dissociates himself from all of the manifestations meant for his enjoyment, viz, Buddhi and so on. The 5 components get absorbed into their refined types i.e. tanmatras. The tanmatras and eleven senses (5 sense organs, 5 motor organs and thoughts) get absorbed into the ego. The ego will get dissolved into the mind and the mind will get absorbed into the avyakta (the unmanifested). The universe is created from the unmanifested stage to the manifested one throughout creation, after which absorbed again once more from the manifested stage to the unmanifested one throughout whole annihilation.

Those that are connected to rajas and Tamas and those that are egoistic repeatedly endure the method and cruel cycle of beginning and demise; others don’t. These indulged in and connected to the dualties like need, hatred, selfishness, intoxication, lust, anger and so on and those that are enveloped by egoism will likely be born and also will die i.e. they’re put into the cycle of life and demise. Those that are free from raja and tama qualities and in addition from egoism and faulty information is not going to suffer from the vicious cycle of life and demise (would attain salvation). [67-69]
Learn – Persona Sorts And Options Based mostly On Satva, Rajas, Tamas

Proofs for the existence of absolute soul

The next is the proof of the existence of absolutely the soul:
Inspiration and expiration
Twinkling / blinking of the attention
Psychological notion (e.g arriving at a far distant place like Pataliputra in creativeness)
Shift from one object of sense organ to a different (e.g shift from visible notion to tactual notion)
Mobility and stability of thoughts
Journey to a different nation in desires
Anticipation of demise
Data of one thing visualised in the fitting eye by the left eye
Want, hatred, happiness, distress, effort, consciousness, stability, mind, reminiscence and ego

All these are indicators of the residing particular person. These indicators aren’t accessible in a lifeless physique. So they’re thought of to be the proof for the existence of absolutely the Soul. When that soul departs, the physique turns into vacant and is disadvantaged of consciousness; solely the 5 Mahabhutas stay. So a lifeless particular person is claimed to have attained the state of 5 Mahabhutas (Panchatva). [70-74]
Learn – Ayu – That means, Clarification, Sorts Of Lifespan

 Thoughts and Soul

The thoughts is devoid of consciousness however has motion. It’s the soul which lends the consciousness to the thoughts. When the soul will get related to the thoughts, the actions accomplished by the thoughts residing within the soul (in affiliation with the soul) will likely be thought of because the actions accomplished by the soul. The soul has consciousness. Subsequently, it’s stated to be the agent of motion (one who does / is chargeable for all motion). Although it possesses of motion the thoughts is claimed to be devoid of motion since it’s devoid of consciousness. [75-76]

Duty for transmigration

The soul will take itself from itself into completely different species (as life ingredient in numerous species of life) in accordance with the outcomes of the actions accomplished by self (beforehand). None else is chargeable for the transmigration of residing being from one species to a different [77]

Freedom of motion of the soul
The soul is totally free to behave as he pleases. He’s nonetheless obliged to benefit from the fruits of his motion. He’s additionally free to manage his thoughts and to eliminate the outcomes of fine or unhealthy acts of his personal.  [78]
Learn – Cluttered Thoughts – Get Rid Of The Large Hurdle Between You And Success

Limitation within the energy of notion of soul

Although, soul is all pervasive his sensations are restricted to the physique through which he resides. He can solely understand the sensations of solely that physique adorned by its personal sense organ of contact – pores and skin (he perceives the sensations within the physique through which he resides relying on the contact of the sense organs with their respective sense objects). His sense organs (sense organs of the physique through which he resides) can’t attain the physique of different residing beings. That is the rationale the soul can’t understand all sensations skilled by the opposite our bodies. [79]

Omnipresence of Soul

The soul is omnipresent as a result of he pervades your entire universe and is nice. Since he’s sure inside a single physique (regardless of being omnipresent) his sensory perceptions are restricted (to solely the physique through which he resides). His discipline of motion is proscribed to the physique alone (although he’s all pervasive and current in all our bodies) due to his common and call with the thoughts which performs all of the actions of that physique. When the soul step by step will get the thoughts beneath its management he ran understand issues regardless of (spatial, temporal or materials) these issues being obstructed (past the wall, display or mountain) or hidden by one thing else. For the reason that soul is consistently related to the thoughts concerned in all actions of the physique and since he can’t see the issues past obstructions (attributable to fixed affiliation with the thoughts) the soul ought to be thought of to be current in just one physique regardless of figuring out that he’s all pervasive (current in all our bodies). [80-81]

Beginninglessness of Soul
The soul is beginningless and so is the method of evolution of the varied components. Thus, it isn’t attainable to find out as to which one precedes the opposite. [82]

Soul as witness
It’s only he who is aware of issues can stand as a witness. The one who doesn’t know something and the inert issues like stone and so on can’t change into witness of something (Issues can’t be witnessed by unconscious objects like stone). So all attributes, actions and so on., of Bhutas are witnessed by the Soul (who alone is knower of issues). [83]
Learn – Vata Dosha – Mastermind Behind All Physique And Thoughts Actions

Sensations and Soul

Absolutely the Soul is one and just one. He’s inaccessible by any indicators or signs. Being inaccessible he has no sensation. It’s only the contractual or the empirical soul who has sensations. For, these sensations don’t represent the attributes of the soul as such. They in reality come up out of the contacts (of the sense organs with their objects) [84- 85]

Therapy of illnesses of previous, current and future

The precept, on which the therapy of illnesses pertaining to the previous, current and future is predicated, is as follows:

Ailments of the previous
Recurrence of headache, fever, cough and vomiting establishes the truth that illnesses of the previous do relapse. Some even say ‘the time of prevalence of the varied illnesses of the previous’ has come as soon as once more.  The therapeutic units meant for assuaging such recurring illnesses by contemplating the previous historical past (of such illnesses) and in addition the time interval of their prevalence (recurrence) are thought of because the ‘therapy of the illnesses of the previous’.

Ailments of the longer term
With the intention to forestall the flood waters from damaging the crops as they did prior to now, a dam is constructed as a safety measure. Equally some therapeutic units are designed and the medicines are prescribed to forestall sure illnesses that are prone to assault residing beings in future after having thought of the premonitory signs of the illnesses and inferring the time of prevalence of ache or illness. This therapy pertains to prevention of future illnesses.

Ailments of the current
The successive continuity of aliments is checked by therapy conducive to the continuity of happiness and well being is established. When one takes the therapies which might set up happiness and well being and in addition would keep away from taking the causative elements which might trigger illnesses, the illnesses aren’t fashioned. And the illnesses would get destroyed by themselves. For the reason that particular person can be taking the therapies which might set up well being and happiness, well being and happiness too can be established. For the reason that etiological elements are stored away, the illnesses which may happen in future too are aborted of their untimely phases and therefore the well being will likely be established. As a result of fixed follow of consumption of the causes (issues) which might set up happiness and well being, the state of equilibrium of tissues and physique parts will likely be established. When this state is maintained the particular person would take pleasure in complete well being.
Learn – Contributory Components for a Illness – Ayurvedic View Level

The state of equilibrium of Dhatus just isn’t disturbed neither is the imbalanced state of dhatus dropped at normalcy with out the involvement of some causative elements. It’s the causative elements which decide the equilibrium or imbalance of the Dhatus. So a doctor treats the illnesses pertaining to the previous, current and future. [86- 94]

Needs and miseries

Naishtiki Chikitsa – Absolute eradication of miseries is named as nishtha. The therapies accomplished to realize this are referred to as as naishtiki chikitsa. The key of success of this therapy is ‘elimination of upadha’ i.e. an irregular thirst referred to as need which retains one connected to this materialistic world and is a reason behind all miseries. Want is the foundation reason behind all miseries. Elimination of need is the eradication of all miseries. 
The agony of beginning and demise (cycle of beginning and demise) is the best distress and the physique is the abode of miseries. Subsequently rejection / elimination of every kind of upadha – needs is the most effective technique of maintaining away all of the illnesses.

A silk-worm produces and weaves round it the silk threads which might trigger its demise.  Equally an ignorant particular person, sure with worldly miseries, supplies for himself and weaves round him the ‘threads of demise’ of need arising out of the varied objects. A smart one who abstains from the objects of senses, contemplating them as harmful as burning fireplace would maintain self indifferent from the rajas and tamas qualities. He is not going to indulge himself in any actions which can push him to adorn this bodily physique to expertise the fruits of these actions i.e. he would maintain himself out of needs and materialistic attachments. By not starting the actions which might maintain him connected to the needs and attachments to the materialistic world and consequently being not embedded within the bodily physique he’ll get freedom from the miseries. [94-97]
Learn – Therapy For Extra Needs – Naishtiki Chikitsa

Explanation for miseries

Impairment of mind, braveness (persistence) and reminiscence, creation of the maturity (of the outcome) of time and motion and unwholesome contact with the objects of senses is taken into account to be the causative elements for miseries. [98]

Impairment of mind

If one thing everlasting is seen as ephemeral and one thing dangerous, and Vice Versa, that is indicative of the impairment of mind, for the Mind usually views issues as they’re. [99]

Impairment of Persistence

A thoughts indulging in worldly enjoyments can’t be restrained from dangerous objects as a result of impairment of braveness / persistence. It’s persistence which might restrain the thoughts (from its dangerous objects). [100]

Impairment of reminiscence

If reminiscence is impaired attributable to an individual being overcome by Rajas and tamas, this is named the impairment of reminiscence. Usually reminiscence incorporates every thing memorable. [101]
Learn – Easy Ideas To Enhance Reminiscence And Combat Reminiscence Loss

Mental Blashphemy

An individual whose mind, braveness / persistence and reminiscence are impaired; the actions he does will likely be untowads and unhealthy. These inauspicious or unhealthy actions accomplished by the particular person are referred to as as prajnaparadha i.e. mental blasphemy. This mental blasphemy aggravates all of the Doshas i.e. the bodily doshas (vata, pitta and kapha) and the psychological doshas (rajas and tamas). 

Forcible stimulation of pure urges (when they don’t seem to be manifested) and suppression of the manifested ones (that are about to get expelled), exhibition of undue energy – being over adventurous compared to one’s capability / energy, over indulgence in sexual act, negligence of the time of therapy, insufficient, extreme and irregular use of cleaning therapies – emesis, purgation, decoction enemas, oil enemas and errhines, lack of modesty and good conduct, disrespect for respectable ones, enjoyment of dangerous sense objects purposefully i.e. sound, contact, sight, style and scent, resorting to the extreme causative elements that are chargeable for the causative of insanity, premature actions / roaming round in restricted / prohibited locations, friendship with individuals of unhealthy actions, avoidance of the wholesome prompts described in Sutra 10: 19:28, malice, self-importance, worry, anger, greed, ignorance, intoxication and bewilderment or unhealthy actions arising out of any of them or different bodily evil acts arising out of Rajas and Tamas represent mental blasphemy resulting in the causation of assorted illnesses. [102-108]
Learn – Vega Dharana: Suppression of urges, sorts, signs, and administration

Mental blasphemy and thoughts

Mental pseudo-conception (notion of improper information by the mind or data which isn’t ‘as it’s’) and improper conduct (mind getting indulged in actions in an improper approach) symbolize mental blasphemy. (This is named mental blasphemy as) alt this falls beneath the purview of the thoughts. [109]
Learn – Sadvritta In Ayurveda – Code Of Conduct For Wholesome Life

Temporal illnesses

Illnesses brought on attributable to modifications in time / seasons are already described in Sutra 17: 114. It has been defined there, how Pitta and different Doshas get collected, aggravated and alleviated (relying on seasonal variation). Faulty, extreme and insufficient use / manifestation of the seasons trigger dosha imbalances and trigger illnesses pertaining to these seasons.

Pitta, kapha and vata get aggravated throughout digestion, instantly after consumption of meals and after full digestion of meals respectively and trigger illnesses in accordance to the aggravation of doshas.

Pitta, kapha and vata get aggravated attributable to meals getting processed in irregular time, premature consumption of meals and premature digestion of meals respectively and trigger associated illnesses.
Kapha, Pitta and Vata get aggravated within the early hours of the morning, afternoon and night respectively.
Kapha, Pitta and Vata get aggravated within the first, second and third components of the night time and trigger illnesses accordingly.
The doshas naturally get aggravated throughout these time durations and the illnesses which get manifested throughout these occasions are referred to as as Kalaja illnesses i.e. illnesses brought on as a result of impression of time and associated dosha imbalance similar to that point. [110-112]
Learn – Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 1 – Quest For Longevity

Examples of Temporal illnesses
Ailments like Anyedyuska (quotidian fever which happens at a set time each day), Dvyahagrahi (reverse quotidian fever), and Trtiya (tertian fever which which happens at an interval of two days) manifest themselves at mounted hours as they get energy solely at such hours. [113]

Time of therapy of temporal illnesses
A doctor acquainted with the energy of time of prevalence of illnesses ought to deal with this and different comparable illnesses previous to their precise manifestation. [114]

Pure illnesses
The illnesses arising out of temporal elements that result in outdated age and demise are to be thought of as pure ones, and pure manifestations are irremediable. [115]

Actions of previous life and illnesses
The motion carried out within the earlier life which is named Daiva (destiny) additionally constitutes causative elements for the manifestation of illnesses sooner or later of time. [116]
Learn – Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa – Divine Therapies of Ayurveda

Remedy of karmaja Ailments

There is no such thing as a main motion (carried out within the earlier life) which doesn’t result in the corresponding outcomes. Ailments arising out of such actions aren’t amenable to any therapeutic measures. They’re cured solely after the outcomes of previous motion are exhausted i.e absolutely loved [117]

Unwholesome contacts with Senses

1. Insufficient, extreme or faulty contact of auditory sense
The auditory sense college is impaired by the listening to of excessively loud sounds or low sound or not listening to the sounds in any respect. Listening to in extra of tough, terrifying, inauspicious or disliked sounds or sounds which point out distress, catastrophe or demise represent the unsuitable utilization of the auditory sense organ.

2. Insufficient, extreme or faulty contact of tactile sense
Insufficient, extreme or faulty utilization of organ of contact i.e. pores and skin could cause pores and skin issues of assorted sorts.
Touching the touchable issues in an insufficient approach (deficit publicity) or not touching them in any respect is taken into account as deficit contact of organ of contact.
Touching the touchable issues in an extreme approach (extreme publicity) or touching too sizzling or too chilly issues in extra is taken into account as extreme contact of organ of contact.
Each these lower the energy of sense organ of contact.
Premature contact with toxic germs (?), Toxic wind, and unctuous, hot and cold substances constitutes unsuitable –utilization of tactile sensation.

3. Insufficient, extreme or faulty contact of visible sense
Insufficient, extreme or faulty utilization of sense organ of visible notion i.e. eyes could cause completely different eye issues.
Seeing dazzling objects in extra is taken into account as extreme contact of the sense organ of imaginative and prescient i.e. eyes.
Seeing extraordinarily refined and smaller issues in extra or by absolute non-utilization of visible college is taken into account as deficit contact of the sense organ of imaginative and prescient.
Seeing undesirable, terrific, despicable, objects and objects positioned at a distance or in shut proximity excessively – constitutes the wrong- utilization of visible college. Imaginative and prescient can be impaired by the contact of the visible college with faint objects.

All these three will both make the imaginative and prescient weak or destroy the imaginative and prescient completely.

4. Insufficient, extreme or faulty contact of gustatory (style) sense
Insufficient, extreme or faulty utilization of sense organ of style notion i.e. tongue could cause completely different style associated issues.
Consuming any specific style in extra is taken into account as extreme contact of the sense organ of style – tongue.
Consuming anyone, two or three tastes or in no way taking them or taking them in much less amount is taken into account as deficit contact of the sense organ of style.
Taking the tastes in opposition to one’s compatibility / suitability, or taking the tastes in an erratic approach i.e. generally consuming a style and another style at another time, or taking one style in extra and different tastes in lesser proportions is taken into account as faulty contact of sense organ of style.

All these three are dangerous for the physique.

5. Insufficient, extreme or faulty contact of olfactory (scent) sense
Insufficient, extreme or faulty utilization of sense organ of scent notion i.e. nostril could cause completely different scent associated issues.
Taking too delicate scent or not smelling something in any respect is taken into account as deficit contact of organ of scent.
Taking too robust / sharp scent is taken into account as extreme contact of organ of scent.
Inhalation of scent of putrefied objects, germs and toxic in addition to unseasonal scent constitutes wrong-utilization of olfactory college.
These are the three kinds of unwholesome contact of senses with their respective objects which worsen the Doshas. [118-127]
Learn – Improper Use Of Sense Organs: A Uncared for Trigger For Ailments


A factor which isn’t conducive to the physique is thought to be Asatmya or unwholesome. [127]

Aindriyaka illnesses

When a illness is brought on by unsuitable utilization, extreme utilization and insufficient utilization (non-utilization) of sense schools it is named “Aindriyaka” i.e a illness brought on by the impairment of senses. [128]
These are the elements chargeable for miseries. Equitable utilization (of time, mind and objects of sense schools) brings about happiness. This equitable utilization is tough to realize. [129]
Learn – Unhealthy Prognosis Based mostly On Odor, Contact, Style, Color And Voice

 4-fold mixture

Neither the sense organs nor their objects alone can result in happiness or miseries. Correct utilization of sense organs will result in happiness and well being. Alternatively the opposite three types of utilization of sense organs i.e. faulty, extreme or deficit / non utilization are chargeable for miseries / illnesses. Even when there are sense organs and their objects current, there can be neither illness nor any happiness until there’s affiliation between the sense organs and their objects. So this mixture itself constitutes a causative issue for happiness and miseries. [130-131]

Components chargeable for happiness and miseries

As a matter of reality no happiness or distress will be brought on with out the Soul, the sense organs, thoughts, mind, and objects of sense. It’s only the four-fold mixture which is related as a causative issue of happiness and miseries (that’s to say the healthful mixture is required to be adhered to and the unwholesome one to be given up for the upkeep of fine well being). [132]

Two kinds of contacts
Tactile contact and psychological contact are the 2 kinds of contacts which result in  happiness and miseries. [133]

Happiness and miseries brought on by Lust
Happiness and miseries result in lust within the type of likes and dislikes respectively. Then once more this lust is chargeable for happiness and miseries it’s lust which gathers elements, which function substrata for happiness and distress. Until such elements are gathered, there will likely be no contact in any respect and there will be no happiness or miseries with out such contact. [134-135]
Learn – Jnana and Karma Indriyas: Organs Of Sense And Operate

Websites of sensations
The thoughts and the physique along with the sense organs unique of Kesha (hair), Loman (small hair), tip of the nail, ingested meals, excreta, excretory fluids and objects of sense are the websites of manifestation of happiness and miseries. [136]

Yoga and Moksha

Recurrence of all sensation is checked by means of Yoga and Moksha. Absolutely the eradication of sensation is attained by means of Moksa. The Yoga is a method to realize Moksha. [137]

What’s Yoga?
Happiness and miseries are felt due the contact of the Soul, the sense organs, thoughts and the objects of senses. Each some of these sensations disappear when the thoughts is concentrated and contained within the Soul as a result of no actions occur when this occurs. The particular person would then achieve management over his thoughts and senses. The physique and thoughts attain supernatural powers. The sages properly versed on this science name this state as Yoga. [138-139]

Eight super-natural powers of Yogin
Getting into different’s physique
Thought studying
Doing issues at will
Tremendous-natural imaginative and prescient
Supernatural audition
Miraculous reminiscence
Unusual brilliance and
Invisibility when so desired – these are the eight supernatural powers attained by these working towards Yoga. All that is achieved by means of the purity of the thoughts free from Rajas and Tamas. [140-141]
Learn – Well being Advantages Of Yoga: Thoughts And Physique


Moksha or salvation is nothing however an absolute detachment of all contacts by advantage of the absence of Rajas and Tamas within the thoughts and annihilation of results of potent previous actions. It is a state after which there will likely be no extra bodily or psychological contacts. [142]

Means for attainment of Moksha
The next serves as means to attainment of Moksha:
Due devotion to noble Souls
Conserving away / ending of the corporate of depraved / unhealthy folks
Observing sacred vows and rituals
Pursuit of the principles of fine conduct
Compliance with scriptural prescriptions
Scriptural information
Liking for lonely residing
Detachment from the objects of sense
Striving for moksha (Salvation)
Absolute psychological management and holding on to braveness
Abstinence from the efficiency of acts resulting in good and sinful results
Annihilation of the consequences of past-actions
Want to get away from the worldly entice
Absence of egoistic disposition
Being afraid of contacts of the Soul, with the thoughts, mind, senses and so on
Focus of the thoughts and mind within the Soul and
Evaluate of religious information
All this may be attained by advantage of the fixed remembering of the truth that the Soul is completely different from the physique and the latter has nothing to do with the previous. [143-146]
Learn – Moksha – The Final Religious Liberation

Support to Reminiscence
The regime prescribed in verses above, starting with devotion to the noble individuals and ending with absolute psychological management (objects 1-10) function an support to good reminiscence if one solely remembers the actual nature of issues he eliminates miseries. [147]

Causative elements of reminiscence

The next are the elements that convey a few good reminiscence:
Data of trigger (of a factor and occasion and so on)
Data of kind (e.g after seeing Gavaya within the forest one remembers a cow having an identical kind)
Data of similarity (e.g. on seeing a son one remembers his father having comparable kind)
Data of distinction (e.g having seen an unsightly kind one remembers a good looking kind)
Focus of thoughts
Attainment of metaphysical information and
Subsequent partial communication of an occasion
A reminiscence is nothing however the remembrance of issues straight perceived, heard (from scriptures) or skilled earlier. [148-149]

Energy of Reminiscence for Salvation

The facility of metaphysical reminiscence constitutes one of the simplest ways of liberation, as proven by the liberated ones. Individuals following this fashion don’t come again to worldly traps. That is once more one of the simplest ways to the attainment of Yoga (communion with God) in addition to Moksha (salvation). That is what the Yogins, the virtuous ones, the followers of the Sankhya system, and the liberated ones say. [150-151]

Actual information

Any issues that has a trigger constitutes distress, it’s alien and ephemeral. It isn’t produced  by the soul (Atman); however one has obtained a sense of its possession till one has obtained an actual information to the impact that that is one thing completely different from him; and isn’t his personal. As quickly as one is aware of it, he eliminates all (miseries). [152-153]

Attainment of ultimate renunciation

As quickly as the ultimate renunciation in respect of all subsequent actions is attained, the very consciousness along with its ultimate causes within the type of indeterminate, determinate or scriptural information is totally eradicated. [154]

The state thereafter
When every kind of pains finish, when every kind of data stop to exist, and when the person soul merges with the larger soul, there will likely be no existence of emphereal / particular person soul. Subsequently, he is not going to be accessible in any kind. He will likely be free from all of the entities (8 prakriti and 16 vikriti) and he doesn’t even go away any indication (inspiration, expiration and so on) of his Existence. That is what that properly versant within the information of Brhman says. It’s unimaginable for an ignorant particular person to know this. [155]
Learn – 40 Methods To Attain Salvation As Per Ayurveda – Nivrutti

To sum up:
On this chapter on “the varied division of the Empirical Soul and so on., as conducive to the understanding of the physique” 23 vital questions concerning the Empirical Soul have been answered by the enlightened seer. [156]

Thus ends the primary chapter on “the Divisions of the Empirical Soul and so on, as conducive to the understanding of the physique” of the Sharira part of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka. [1]



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