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Charaka Shareera Sthana seventh Chapter Shareera Sankhya Shareeram


seventh chapter of Charaka Shareera sthana offers with “the enumeration of the organs as conducive to the understanding of the human physique”. The chapter title is Shareera Sankhya Shaareeram.

We will now discover the chapter on “the enumeration of the organs as conducive to the understanding of the human physique”. Thus mentioned Lord Atreya [1-2]
Learn – Shareera: Formation Of Human Physique, Ayurvedic Idea

Question about organs of physique

With a view to establish the quantity and measurement of your entire physique by classifying the physique in response to its element organs, Agnivesha requested Lord Atreya to enumerate the organs of the physique. [3]

Six layers of pores and skin

Lord Atreya replied, “Hearken to meattentively O! Agnivesha! I shall describe your entire physique in applicable method as per your questions”

There are six layers of pores and skin as follows:
First one is the exterior layer which is named Udaka-Dhara (containing / made up of watery substance of Lymph).
The second layer is Asrgdara (containing blood, capillaries)
The third layer is the positioning for the manifestation of Sidhma (a kind of determatosis) and Kilasa (Leucoderma)
The fourth layer is the positioning for the manifestation of Dadru (ring-worm) and Kustha (obstinate pores and skin ailments together with leprosy)
The fifth Layer is the positioning for the manifestation of Alaji (boil) and Vidradhi (abscess).
The sixth layer is that by the excision of which the person will get trembling and enters into darkness (will get fainting) like a blind man. On this layer the boils manifest within the joints that are blackish crimson in color and are deep rooted. Such boils are extraordinarily troublesome of therapy. These are the six layers of the pores and skin by which your entire physique together with its six organs (elements) stay coated. [4]
Learn – Indicators Of Good Pores and skin Well being (Twak Sara Purusha Lakshanas)

Elements of the physique

The physique is split into six elements, viz. Two higher limbs, head together with neck and the trunk. (These are the six elements of the physique). [5]

Variety of bones

Together with enamel, sockets of enamel and nails, bones within the physique are 360 in quantity. They’re as follows:

Enamel- 32
Sockets of teeth- 32
Nails – 20
Phalangeal bones of arms and feet- 60
Meta phalangeal bones of arms and feet- 20
Six bones which from the bottom to assist the meta phalangeal bones of arms & feet- 4
Parshni (bones of heels or calcaneus)-2
Gulpha (ankle bones) – 4
Mani (wrist bones) – 2
Aratni (bones of forearms) – 4
 Jangha (bones of legs) – 4
Janu (bones of knees) – 2
 Janu Kapala (knee caps) -2
Hole bones of thighs (femurs)-2
Hole bones of arms (humerus) – 2
Amsa (bones of the Shoulder)-2
Amsaphalaka (shoulder blades) – 2
Aksaka (clavicles) – 2
Jatru (wind pipe) – 2
Talu (palated bones) – 2
Bhagasthi (public bone) – 2
Bhagasthi (public bone) – 1
Bones of the again – 45
Bone of the neck – 15
Bone of chest – 14
Bones of the edges (ribs) – 24
Sockets (for ribs) – 24
Tubercles within the sockets (for ribs) – 24
Hanvasthi or Jawbone (decrease) – 1
Hanumula Bandhana (bones which preserve the decrease jaw locked up) -2
Bone constituting of cheeks and brow – 1
Sankha (temporal bones) -2
Sirah kapala (pan formed bones of the pinnacle) – 4
Thus the 360 bones together with enamel, sockets of bones and nails are accounted for. [6]
Learn – Asthi Shareera – Definition, Anatomy, Varieties Of Bones

Sensory and motor organs

There are 5 organs of senses i.e.

  • Pores and skin
  • Tongue
  • Nostril
  • Two eyes and
  • Two ears

These are 5 sense schools i.e.

  • Tactile
  • Gustatory
  • Olfactory
  • Visible and
  • Auditory

There are 5 motor organs i.e.

  • Two arms
  • Two ft
  • Anus
  • Intercourse organs and
  • Tongue

The location of consciousness is just one, i.e. the center. [7-8]

Resorts of life

There are ten resorts of life, viz,

  • Head
  • Throat
  • Coronary heart
  • Umbilicus
  • Anus
  • Bladder
  • Ojas
  • Semen
  • Blood and
  • Flesh

Of them the primary six organs are often called Marma (very important organs) [9]
Learn – Involvement Of Doshas In Formation Of Organs

Visceras

Kosthangas (viscera within the thorax and stomach) are fifteen in quantity. They’re

  • Nabhi (umbilicus)
  • Hrdaya (coronary heart)
  • Kloman (lungs)
  • Yakrt (liver)
  • Pliha (spleen)
  • Vrkkau (two kidneys)
  • Basti (urinary bladder)
  • Purisadhara (pelvic colon)
  • Amashaya (abdomen)
  • Pakvashaya (colon)
  • Uttaraguda (rectum)
  • Adharaguda (anus)
  • Ksudrantra (small gut)
  • Sthulantra (massive gut) and
  • Vapavahana (omentum). [10]

Learn – Pratyangas: The minor organs, Definition, Quantity

Pratyangas or sub-parts of physique

Within the six Angas (elements of the physique) there are about 56 Pratyngas (sub-parts). They weren’t described earlier than whereas enumerating the six elements of the physique. They’re enumerated under following a distinct mode of classification:

  • Janghapindika (calves) – 2
  • Urupindika (muscular portion of the thigh) – 2
  • Sphik (buttocks) – 2
  • Vrsana (testicles) – 2
  • Sepha (phallus) – 1
  • Ukha (Elevations bordering axillae) – 2
  • Vanksana (groins) – 2
  • Kukundara (hips) – 2
  • Vastisirsa (pelvis) – 1
  • Udara- (stomach) – 1
  • Stana (breasts) – 2
  • Slesmabhu (tonsils) – 2
  • Bahupidika (muscular portion of arms – 2)
  • Cibuka (chin) – 1
  • Ostha(lips) – 2
  • Srkkani (angles of the mouth – 2)
  • Dantavestaka (gums) – 2
  • Talu (Palate) – 1
  • Galasundika (uvula) – 1
  • Upajihvika (ear holes) – 2
  • Gojhva (tongue or the organs of the ear) – 2
  • Ganda (cheeks) – 2
  • Karnasaskulika (ear holes) – 2
  • Karnaputraka (exterior portion of the ear) – 2
  • Aksikuta (orbit of eye) – 2
  • Aksivartma (eye bids) – 4
  • Aksikaninuka (medial angles of the eyes close to the nostril) – 2
  • Bhru (eye brows) – 2
  • Avatu (thyroid) – 1
  • Panipadahrdaya (soles of arms and ft) – 4 [11]

Main orifices

There are 9 main orifices – seven within the head and two under:
The above are the seen components and are able to description. [12-13]
Learn – Srotas: Physique Channels and Duct programs – Straightforward Clarification

Enumeration of different organs

Past what’s described above may be ascertained from inference solely.  They’re enumerated under:

  • Snayu (sinew / ligaments) – 900
  • Sira (veins) – 700
  • Dhamani (arteries) – 200Muscles – 400
  • Marma (very important elements within the physique) – 107
  • Joints – 200
  • Terminals of the superb ramifications of the veins and arteries- 29956
  • Kesha(hair), Smashru (beard and moustaches) and loma (small hair) – 2994

Tvak (pores and skin) and so forth., enumerated above are correctly seen and the variety of the remaining may be ascertained by inference solely. Each these classes don’t endure any variation throughout the regular state of the person’s physique. [14]

Measurement of liquid constituents of physique

Substance of the physique which may be measured by quantity taking Anjali (area created by becoming a member of each the arms within the type of a cup) as a unit are actually being described. The measurement described right here pertains to the perfect commonplace. These substances can endure variation within the type of improve or lower in a standard particular person and this may be ascertained by inference.
Learn – Anjali Pramana: Quantity Measurement As Per Ayurveda

Measurement of those substances are given under:

Sl No Substances Measurement by way of Anjali of the person whose substances are being measured
1 Udaka (watery portion / aqueous aspect) a substance which is seen blended with faeces throughout the prevalence of diarrhoea; additionally it is present in affiliation with urine, blood, and different tissue parts of the physique. It’s unfold all around the physique with its website within the exterior pores and skin. Contained in the pores and skin, it is named Lasika (lymph) which exudes by ulcers. When the physique turns into sizzling, it comes out from hair follicles within the type of sweat. 10
2 Rasa which is the primary product of the ingested meals after it’s metabolised 9
3 Blood 8
4 Faeces 7
5 Kapha 6
6 Pitta 5
7 Urine 4
8 Vasa (muscle fats) 3
9 Medas (fats) 2
10 Majja (bone-marrow) 1
11 Mastiska (the fats) like substance contained in the cranium) 1/2
12 Shukra (semen) ½
13 Shlaismika sort of Ojas 1/2

Thus the assorted components within the physique are described. [15]

Mahabhautic predominance in varied constituents

These organs are dominated by one or different of the Mahabhutas. Their particular traits are given under:

Sl No Mahabhautika  predominance   Respective organs with their particular traits
1 Parthiva  (dominated by Prthvi Mahabhuta – earth aspect) 1 Organs that are gross, steady, having varieties, heavy, tough and arduous like nail, bone, enamel, flesh, pores and skin, faeces, hair, smasru (moustache)
    2 Scent (of the physique) and
    3 Olfactory school
2 Apya (dominated by Jala Mahabhuta – water aspect) 1 Components within the physique that are liquid, cell, gradual, unctuous, smooth and slimy like Rasa (Plasma), Rudira (blood), Vasa (muscle fats), Kapha, pitta, urine and sweat
    3 Gustatory school
3 Agneya (dominated by Agnimahabhuta – fireplace aspect) 1 All components like pitta, temperature and lustre of the physique
    2 Colors (of various components within the physique) and
    3 Visible school
4 Vayaviya (dominated by Vayu mahabhuta – air / wind aspect) 1 Bodily phenomena like inhalation, exhalation, opening and shutting of eyes, contraction, impelling and retention
    2 Components of the physique that are recognized by contact and
    3 Tactile school
5 Antariksha (dominated by Akasha mahabhuta – ether aspect) 1 Components of the character of void, talking (voice), gross and delicate channels
    2 Sounds (excluding speech) emanating from totally different organs of the  physique and
    3 Auditory school

The soul, the mind and the thoughts whereas stimulating the assorted sense organs in the direction of their objects are dominated by the qualities of the respective sense organs. Thus the physique divided into varied gross organs is merited. [16]

Learn – Panchamahabhuta: Utility, Areas of Utility in Ayurveda therapy

Innumerability of organs of physique

Paramanus are the minute cells / models of the physique and so they can’t be counted as a result of (1) they’re past sensory notion. These Paramanus make up the organs of the physique. Based mostly on the innumerability of the paramanus, the variety of organs of the physique can be thought of as innumerable. Vayu, the particular nature of the outcomes of the previous motion and the essential nature related to these Paramanus are answerable for their union and disjunction. [17]

Information of organs of the body- salvation

When this physique composed of varied elements is perceived as one unit, this results in attachment; when the assorted composing components are considered as separate from one another, this results in salvation. Of the assorted elements, the Soul is unattached. When He dissociates Himself from all (beneficial and unfavourable) manifestations, there may be salvation (from the worldly affairs). [18]
Learn – Significance Of Soul In Notion Of Information: Atma Jnana

The doctor, who is aware of the variety of varied parts of the physique of their entirety, doesn’t affiliate himself with phantasm which is attributable to ignorance. Due to the absence of phantasm he doesn’t get with the faults (of such phantasm) and being free from faults, he turns into unattached and peaceable which results in the prevention of his rebirth. [19-20]

Thus ends the seventh chapter of Sharira Part on “The Enumeration of Organs as conducive to the understanding of the human physique” of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka [7]

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